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Yıl:1972; Cilt: 10; Sayı: >> Özet
Psikoloji Çalışmaları; 1972;10():97-179
İçedönüklük - Dışadönüklük Şahsiyet Vasıfları İle İdrakler Arasındaki İlişkiler
M Aşkın
Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum
In this study, the relations between introversión-extraversión -personality traits and perceptions are examined. M.M.P.l. SocialIntelligence Scale and ^Emotional Maladjustments^ and «Sociability» Scales of Alastair Heron Personality Test have been used to group the subjects according to their personality traits. According to the scores obtained from personality tests, the subjects have been divided into three groups: «introvert», «borderline», and «extravert». The experiments designed to examine the relationships between introversión-extraversión personality traits and perceptions were in particular related to visual perception. These experiments were Müîler-Lyer Illusion, Stereo-Kinetic-Depth perception and Kinephantascope Illusions. The general hypothesis of this research is that there is a relationship between perceptual behaviors and Personality structure. Acting from this general hypothesis more specific hypotheses have been formulated in accordance with the characteristics of each experiment. On M.M.P.I. Social-intelligence scale, the subjects who received a score of 3fy or over have been accepted as introvert; those who who obtained a score of 7-12. formed the introvert group; those who received a score between 16 and 25 were considered as extravert. On the sociability scale of the Heron Personality Test, the subjects who obtained score of 7 -12 formed the introvert group; those who received a score of Jf-6 were called border-line; and those who had a score of 1 - 3 were considered as extravert. The sample used in this research consisted of 82 University students; 37 from University of'Istanbul and ^5 from Atatürk University in Erzurum. The study was conducted in two parts : one in Istanbul and the other in Erzurum. Both groups were subjected to the same personality tests and perception experiments. Both personality tests'have produced confirming results. The correlation between the M.M.P.I. Social-intelligence and Heron sociability scale was + 0^ 5-If. for the Group Î in Istanbul and • - f 0, 53 for the Group II in Erzurum. . The first perception experiment applied to the subjects was the M-Lyer Illusion the essence of which was equalizing the two lengths in a horizontal situation. In this experiment, the subjects were equalizing the given and the standart stimulus with their hands. The result obtained from the M-Lyer Illusion experiments were significantly different for the first and the second group. In these experiments, the responses obtained from the extravert subjects were closer to the standart stimulus_ than the ones obtained from the introvert subjects. It can be said that the subjects in Istanbul and Erzurum expressed similar behaviors. The illusion level was over 20 per cent for the introvert groups, less than 10 per cent for the extravert groups and 16-17 per cent for the border-line groups. Positive correlation was found between the M-Lyer Illusion test and the personality tests. These correlations were r = + 0.57 r = + O.JfS for the Group I and r = + 0.76, r = + 0.81/. for the Group II. These results have supported our hypothesis. The second experiment is a phenomenon which is known as stereo-kinetic depth perception and which does not produce a depth perception in a static situation but does produce while rotating around an axis. In this experiment, a gramophone was used. A mirror was installed in the backside of the instrument. The images of the stimuli materials rotating on the disc were observed from the mirror by the subjects. Meaningful results were obtained from this experiment in regard to groups with different personality traits in two cities. The extravert groups were able to observe the depth perception more than the introvert groups. The differences between the groups with different personality traits in both groups (I and II) were meaningful at the level of P <.001. Our hypothesis has been supported by these results. The third experiment is kinephantascope illusion. This experiment is related to the reversible perception process. We were not able to apply this experiment to Group II in Erzurum since we could not provide the instrument there. In Kinephantascope illusion, many different perceptual organisations with equal probabilities emerged. In this experiment, the responses of the subjects against a stimulus which was changing for a certain time were being examined in regard to variety and the number of changes. In this experiment, the extravert groups have produced more variation and greater' number of changes in comparison to the introvert groups. The differences between the groups with different, personality traits in both groups (I and II) were meaningful at the level of P <.001. These results have also supported our hypothesis. Consequently, this study has indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits (introversion and extroversion) and the perceptions (M-Lyer Ilhision, Stereokinetic Depth Perception and Kinephantascope Illusion). The experiments, thus have supported our general hypothesis.