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Yıl:1972; Cilt: 10; Sayı: >> Özet
Psikoloji Çalışmaları; 1972;10():11-96
Hipertiroidi Hastalığının İdrak ve Şahsiyet Özellikleri
M Ormanlı
İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbul
In this study, the perceptual and personality characteristics of hyperthyroidism were studied and the possibility of psychological tests on the diagosis and treatment of this disease was investigated. The results of this experimental group was compared with three control groups, namely, the normal group, other thyroid diseases group and other endocrindl diseases group; in all, eleven different groups of subjects took part in this experiment comprising 36^ subjects. A battery of five psychological tests were included in the study. These were perceptual and personality tests. The perceptual tests used were : A. The Spiral After Effect Test (S.A.E.T.), B. The study of perceptual span and speed by using different sorts of stimuli in a Tachistoscope with a speed of 1/10 sec, C. The Mutter Lyer test of illusion, D. The Kinephantoscope test of illusion. The personality test used was The Kahn Test of Symbol Arrangement. In the Spiral After Effect Test, the after effect was perceived by all the normal subjects. But, there were a number of subjects that • could not perceive this after effect in the diseased groups. This ratio was up to 25 % in the hyperthyroid group. There was also ,a number of responses in the subjects that were not mentioned in the literature before. These were «unexpected» responses] such as seeing the after effect in a reverse direction and the perception of colour along the contours of the spiral. The «unexpected» answers were more symptomatic of the diseased groups than the normals. The colour responses were significantly more frequent in the normal groups. The spiral after effect falls under the classification of gamma movement, having to do with the perception of expansion or contracting of light as it appears or disappears. To explain the phenomenon, certain assumptions are necessary concerning the retinal processes. Primarily, the receptors in the center of the retina respond more quickly than those in the periphery. Movement is seen with the sudden cessation of movement by the spiral stimulus. Because when the spiral is fixated on the retina, receptors in the center of the retina respond first and are followed by those in the periphery. Also, lowered intensity on the periphery of the retina (fixation on the center of the spiral) causes the periphery of the retina to respond later. Thus, we find the «expansion» effect when the spiral is rotated in a clockwise direction. The same principal of the latency with which receptors are activated applies for the «contraction» effect when the spiral is stopped after counter-clockwise rotation. Thus, an inability to perceive an after-image would seem to indicate an absence of usual cortical excitation in response to peripheral latency in the retina. In the experiment with the Tachistoscope, the span and speed of perception of the normals were fast at a statistically significant level compared with the subjects in the diseased groups. The most interesting result was that all groups except the hypertyroid group had a constant error in the ( + ) direction. The constant error of the hypertyroid group was in the ( — ) direction. In the Mutter Lyer Test of Illusion, the amount öf error was almost 30 % in some of the diseased groups. The amount of error in the normal group was about 10 %. It is proved that this test can very well distinguish between the normals and the diseased subjects. In the Kinaphantoscope Test of reversible illusion the number of illusions evoked in the diseased groups were lower than in the normal group. The results of Kahn Test of Symbol Arrangement were most interesting. The letter element of this test proved to be most helpful in differentiating the subjects. The normal subjects gave ( Z ) and ( Y ) answers which were equal to abstract thinking, whereas ( D ) answers, equalling simple enumerations were more frequent with the thyroid diseases. The -letter element combined with the number element displayed the hypertyroid personality to be schizoid with a tendency to depression and character disorder and with a possibility of some sort of cortical damage. The results of these experiments have proved that psychological tests can very well be used as aiding devices in the diagnosis of medical diseases.