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Yıl:1966; Cilt: 5; Sayı: >> Özet
Psikoloji Çalışmaları; 1966;5():12-37
Yüz İfadelerinin Tefsirine Ait Tecrübe ve Teorilerin Yeniden Gözden Geçirilmesi
M Turhan
İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbul
Reconsiderations of Theories and Experiments on the Interpretatıon of Facial Expressions
Ten pictures representing a definite and clear scene were selected from normal films to be used in the investigation of the factors contributing to the interpretation of facial expressions, and the role of the situation in this process. I n these pictures, the main character was first presented to the subjects isolated from the situation, and then within the situation, wit h additional information to ten subjects, and they were asked to interpret their facial expressions in both cases. I n hese experiments, it was found that an expression isolated from the situation was interpreted differently from the same expression within the situation. According to the results of this experiment, it was found that the situation halved the number of judgements about an expression compared wit h the number of judgements given in isolated situations. It also concentrated the responses, among many possibilities, on the one that fitted the situation most, and in many cases changed it. The influence of situation was also important on gestures and postures. I n the check experiment a normal face was interchanged wit h an angry one in an «anger» situation in the pictures and this face was interpreted by the majority as showing anger or some related emotions. This experiment was repeated under more rigid conditions wit h a film. A group of five acted scenes of «joy», anger», «sorrow» and «fear» and each actor for ten seconds acted two other emotions in each scene. Thus in every emotional scene, ten other emotions were represented. This film was shown to three groups of university students, and the3r were asked whether they observed other emotions besides the main one, and if so, their names and numbers. As a result it was seen not more than two emotions could be perceived in each scene on the average This indicates the distinctness of the influence of situation, and it implies the necessity of a new approach and method where situation is taken as a basis in the investigations of facial expressions.